Less Commonly Used

2C-B, 2C-T-7
2C-B 2C-T-7, 7th heaven, 7-up, beautiful, Blue Mystic, lucky 7, Tripstasy

What is it?
These are psychoactive or hallucinogenic compounds similar to mescaline. Chemically, 2C-B is 4-bromo-2, 5-dimethoxyhenethylamine. 2C-T-7 is 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(n) ropylthiophenethylamine. Because they are produced in clandestine laboratories, they are seldom pure and the amount in a capsule or tablet is likely to vary considerably.

What does it look like?
Both are sold in powder or in pill form.

How is it used?
Taken orally or snorted. Even in small doses it can be lethal. 2C-T-7 is more lethal when snorted.

What are it’s short term effects?
2C-T-7 causes intense hallucinations. The most commonly reported unpleasant effects are gastrointestinal: nausea and vomiting. Also, diarrhea, gas, delirium, muscle tension and spasms, headaches, increased heartbeat, raised blood pressure, confusion or disorientation and inability to concentrate. 2CB has been reported to cause confusion, cardiovascular disturbances, and dehydration.

What are it’s long term effects?
Unknown

What is its federal classification?
Schedule I

AMT

What is it?
For basic information on this emerging or less prevalent drug please see the links below to law enforcement reports and press articles. Little is known about the short-term and long-term effects of this drug due to a lack of research.
Dangerous Club-Drug Knockoffs Surge (7/22/02)
Hallucinogenic Tryptamines AMT and Foxy Gain Popularity in U.S. (4/28/03)

What is its federal classification?
Schedule II

Anorectic Drugs

What is it?
A number of drugs have been developed and marketed to replace amphetamines as appetite suppressants. These anorectic drugs include benzphetamine (Didrex), diethylproprion (Tenuate, Tepanil), fenfluramine (Pondimin), mazindol (Sanorex, Mazanor), phendimetrazine (Bontril, Prelu-2, Plegine) and phentermine (Ionamin, AdipexP).

What are it’s short term effects?
They produce many of the effects of the amphetamines, but are generally less potent. All are controlled substances because of the similarity of their effects to those of the amphetamines.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule III

Bath Salts
Bath Salts are sold under a number of different “brand” names, and as different products, such as plant feeder or insect repellent. Brand names include: Bliss, Blue Silk, Cloud Nine, Drone, Energy-1, Ivory Wave, Lunar Wave, Meow Meow, Ocean Burst, Pure Ivory, Purple Wave, Red Dove, Snow Leopard, Stardust, Vanilla Sky, White Dove, White Knight, and White Lightning.

What is it?
Bath Salts are substituted cathinones, which are synthetic, concentrated versions of the stimulant chemical in Khat. Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), mephedrone and methylone are the chemicals most often found in Bath Salts.

What does it look like?
Bath Salt products are sold in powder form in small plastic or foil packages of 200 and 500 milligrams under various brand names. Mephedrone is a fine white, off-white or slightly yellow-colored powder. It can also be found in tablet and capsule form. MDPV is a fine white or off-white powder.

How is it used?
Bath Salts are usually ingested by sniffing/snorting. They can also be taken orally, smoked, or put into a solution and injected into veins.

What are it’s short term effects?
Short-term effects include very severe paranoia that can sometimes cause users to harm themselves or others. Effects reported to Poison Control Centers include suicidal thoughts, agitation, combative/violent behavior, confusion, hallucinations/psychosis, increased heart rate, hypertension, chest pain, death or serious injury. The speed of onset is 15 minutes, while the length of the high from these drugs is 4-6 hours.

What are it’s long term effects?
Unknown

What is its federal classification?
On October 21, 2011, DEA published a final order in the Federal Register exercising its emergency scheduling authority to control three of the synthetic stimulants that are used to make bath salts. As a result of this order, these synthetic stimulants are designated as Schedule I substances under the Controlled Substances Act.

Crystal Meth
Ice

What is it?
Crystal Meth is a very pure, smokeable form of methamphetamine. It is a powerful and extremely addictive man-made stimulant. Its use can lead to severe physiological and psychological dependence.

What does it look like?
Clear crystal chunks, similar in appearance to actual ice or glass. Crystal Meth is odorless and colorless.

How is it used?
Crystal Meth is usually smoked, but is sometimes snorted or injected. The drug is abused because of its euphoric effects.

What are it’s short term effects?
The drug’s effects are similar to those of cocaine but longer lasting. Crystal Meth can cause erratic, violent behavior among its users. Effects include suppressed appetite, interference with sleeping behavior, mood swings and unpredictability, tremors and convulsions, increased blood pressure, irregular heart rate. Users may also experience homicidal or suicidal thoughts, prolonged anxiety, paranoia and insomnia. Crystal meth use by pregnant women can lead to premature birth or birth defects, including heart defects and cleft palate.

What are it’s long term effects?
Long-term effects of Crystal Meth use can include brain damage (similar to the effects of Parkinson’s disease or Alzheimer’s disease), coma, stroke or death. Chronic users may also develop distinct physical symptoms, as demonstrated by before and after pictures in the Faces of Meth™ program. Signs of chronic use include weight loss, tooth decay and cracked teeth (“Meth Mouth”), psychosis and hallucinations, sores on the body from picking at skin, and formication (an abnormal skin sensation akin to “bugs crawling on skin”).

What is its federal classification?
Schedule II

Depressants
barbs, booze (alcohol), candy, downers, forget-me pills, Mexican Valium, phennies, R2, red birds, reds, Roche, roofies, roofinol, rope, rophies, sleeping pills, tooies, tranks, whippets (inhalants), yellow jackets, yellows.

What is it?
Depressants are substances which slow down the normal function of the central nervous system. These drugs include barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and alcohol. Marijuana and some inhalants are also depressants.
Barbiturates are a class of drugs known as sedative-hypnotics, commonly prescribed for anxiety and insomnia. Commercial names include Amytal, Nembutal, and Phenobarbital.
Benzodiazepines (other than Flunitrazepam) are commonly prescribed as tranquilizers. These drugs are among the most widely prescribed medications in the US. Commercial names include Valium and Xanax.
Flunitrazepam, commercially known as Rohypnol, is a sedative associated with sexual assaults. This drug is not sold in the US, but may be brought in from other countries. Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is illegal in the US due to its sedative properties and frequent abuse in sexual assaults.

What does it look like?
Depressants come in many forms. Many depressants are available as pills, powders or liquids.

How is it used?
Depressants may be swallowed, injected, smoked or snorted. Depressants are commonly used to reduce anxiety, induce sleep and lower inhibitions.

What are it’s short term effects?
The use of depressants can result in a slowed pulse and breathing, slurred speech, drowsiness, lowered blood pressure, poor concentration, fatigue and confusion, as well as impaired coordination, memory and judgment.
Rohypnol (Flunitrazepam) may cause visual and gastrointestinal disturbances, urinary retention, and temporary memory loss.

What are it’s long term effects?
Prolonged or heavy abuse of depressants can result in addiction, impaired sexual function, chronic sleep problems, respiratory depression and respiratory arrest, and death.

What is its federal classification?
Not applicable

DMT
Businessman’s trip

What is it?
Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a hallucinogenic tryptamine. It is found in a variety of plants and seeds, and can also be produced synthetically.

What does it look like?
Pure DMT is most often found in crystal form.

How is it used?
Sniffed, smoked, or injected.

What are it’s short term effects?
Hallucinogenic effects last for about 45 to 60 minutes. Because the effects last only about an hour, the experience was called a “businessman’s trip.”

What is its federal classification?
Schedule I

DOM, DOB, MDA

What is it?

These are chemical variations of amphetamines, also known as substituted amphetamines. These so-called “designer drugs” are stimulants. When used, substituted amphetamines may have mood altering effects and may produce hallucinations. Large doses or chronic abuse may result in stimulant psychosis, a psychotic state which includes delusions and thought disorder. DOM is chemically 4-Methyl-2, 5-dimethoxyamphetamine was introduced into the San Francisco drug scene in the late 1960s, and was nicknamed STP, acronym for “Serenity, Tranquility, and Peace.”

DOB is 4-bromo-2, 5-dimethoxyamphetamine

MDA is 3, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, similar to MDMA or Ecstasy. MDA is linked to the destruction of serotonin-producing neurons, which play a direct role in regulating aggression, mood, sexual activity, sleep, and pain sensitivity. It is also nicknamed the “Love Drug”.

What does it look like?
Substituted amphetamines are most often found in either powder or pill form.

How is it used?
Substituted amphetamines, such as DOM, DOB and MDA, can be taken orally or nasally. They are most often found in either powder or pill form. Because they are produced illegally in clandestine laboratories, they are seldom pure. The dosage amount in a capsule or tablet and the quality of the substance is likely to vary considerably.

What are it’s short term effects?
These drugs differ from one another in their potency, speed of onset, duration of action and their capacity to modify mood with or without producing overt hallucinations.

What are it’s long term effects?
Unknown

What is its federal classification?
Not Applicable

DXM
Dex, Robo, Skittles, Triple C, Tussin

What is it?
Dextromethorphan is a cough-suppressing ingredient found in a variety of over-the-counter cold and cough medications. Like PCP and Ketamine, dextromethorphan is a dissociative anesthetic, meaning DXM effects can include hallucinations.

What does it look like?
Cough syrup and cough and cold tablets or gel caps that are available without a prescription. Also, dextromethorphan can be purchased in a powder form, often over the internet.

How is it used?
Swallowed.

What are it’s short term effects?
The effects of dextromethorphan abuse vary with the amount taken. Common DXM effects can include confusion, dizziness, double or blurred vision, slurred speech, impaired physical coordination, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, rapid heartbeat, drowsiness, numbness of fingers and toes, and disorientation. DXM abusers describe different “plateaus” ranging from mild distortions of color and sound to visual hallucinations and “out-of-body,” dissociative, sensations, and loss of motor control.

What are it’s long term effects?
The abuse of cough medications including DXM can contain other ingredients, such as acetaminophen, which can be very dangerous when taken in large quantities. For example, large quantities of acetaminophen can damage the liver.
DXM is also sometimes abused with other drugs or alcohol, which can increase the dangerous physical effects.

What is its federal classification?
Not Applicable

Ecstasy
Adam, E, Molly, Roll, X, XTC

What is it?
MDMA or Ecstasy (3-4-methylenedioxymethampheta-mine), is a synthetic drug with amphetamine-like and hallucinogenic properties. It is classified as a stimulant.

What does it look like?
Ecstasy comes in a tablet form that is often branded, e.g. Playboy bunnies, Nike swoosh, CK.

How is it used?
Taken in pill form, users sometimes take Ecstasy at “raves,” clubs and other parties to keep on dancing and for mood enhancement.

What are it’s short term effects?
Users report that Ecstasy produces intensely pleasurable effects — including an enhanced sense of self-confidence and energy. Effects include feelings of peacefulness, acceptance and empathy. Users say they experience feelings of closeness with others and a desire to touch others. Other effects can include involuntary teeth clenching, a loss of inhibitions, transfixion on sights and sounds, nausea, blurred vision, chills and/or sweating. Increases in heart rate and blood pressure, as well as seizures, are also possible. The stimulant effects of the drug enable users to dance for extended periods, which when combined with the hot crowded conditions usually found at raves, can lead to severe dehydration and hyperthermia or dramatic increases in body temperature. This can lead to muscle breakdown and kidney, liver and cardiovascular failure. Cardiovascular failure has been reported in some of the Ecstasy-related fatalities. After-effects can include sleep problems, anxiety and depression.

What are it’s long term effects?
Repeated use of Ecstasy ultimately may damage the cells that produce serotonin, which has an important role in the regulation of mood, appetite, pain, learning and memory. There already is research suggesting Ecstasy use can disrupt or interfere with memory.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule I

Foxy

What is it?
For basic information on this emerging or less prevalent drug, please see the links below to law enforcement reports and press articles. Little is known about the short-term and long-term effects of this drug due to a lack of research.
Student in Hospital After “Foxy” Drug Use (1/21/03)
Dangerous Club-Drug Knockoffs Surge (7/22/02)
Hallucinogenic Tryptamines AMT and Foxy Gain Popularity in U.S. (4/28/03).

What is its federal classification?
Schedule I

GHB
G, Georgia Home Boy, Grievous Bodily Harm, Liquid Ecstasy, Date Rape Drug, Roofie

What is it?
GHB is predominantly a central nervous system depressant.

What does it look like?
GHB (Gamma hydroxybutyrate) can be produced in clear liquid, white powder, tablet, and capsule forms. It is colorless and odorless. GHB has a salty taste; however it is often diluted in liquids and virtually undetectable. GHB is often manufactured in homes with recipes and kits found and purchased on the Internet. GHB is made from a combination of gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. These substances are more commonly used as floor stripping solvents and drain cleaners.

How is it used?
In powder form, measuring a dose is fairly straightforward. In liquid form, GHB comes in a wide variety of concentrations with a single dose ranging from a few drops to a full glass. Body builders have been known to abuse GHB to stimulate muscle growth. The drug is also commonly abused as a recreational drug, particularly among partygoers on the club scene.

What are it’s short term effects?
At lower doses, GHB can relieve anxiety and produce relaxation. Combining use with other drugs such as alcohol can result in nausea, loss of muscle control and difficulty breathing. GHB may also produce withdrawal effects, including insomnia, anxiety, tremors, and sweating.

What are it’s long term effects?
As the dose increases, the sedative effects may result in sleep and eventual coma or death. Other effects include difficulty thinking, hallucinations, slurred speech, headaches and amnesia. GHB has reportedly been used in cases of date rape. Because GHB is odorless and tasteless, it can be slipped into someone’s drink without detection.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule I

Herbal Ecstasy
Brand names for herbal ecstasy products include: Cloud 9, Rave Energy, Ultimate Xphoria

What is it?
Herbal Ecstasy is a term used to describe a combination of herbs that are legal, inexpensive, and marketed as a “natural high.” Herbal Ecstasy can be purchased over the counter in drug stores, music stores, and shops around the country.

What does it look like?
Pills sold in colorful packaging.The packaging on these products, including brand names “Herbal Ecstasy,” “Cloud 9″ and “Ultimate Xphoria,” promises “increased energy,” “inner visions,” “sexual sensations,” and “cosmic consciousness.”

How is it used?
It is swallowed, snorted, or smoked.

What are it’s short term effects?
Ephedrine (the key ingredient in Herbal Ecstasy) stimulates the cardiovascular and central nervous system. It may cause harmful reactions in people with high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and other conditions. People with vulnerabilities to ephedrine can suffer from heart attacks, strokes, and seizures when taking the drug.

What are it’s long term effects?
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has banned the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedra (ephedrine alkaloids) due to concerns over their cardiovascular effects, including increased blood pressure and irregular heart rhythm.  The final rule became effective on April 12, 2004.  The rule does not pertain to drugs that contain chemically synthesized ephedrine, or to traditional Chinese herbal remedies and herbal teas.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule I

K-2, Spice
The most common names for synthetic marijuana are K2 and Spice, but it is also sold as Bliss, Black Mamba, Bombay Blue, Blaze, Genie, Spice, Zohai, JWH -018, -073, -250, Yucatan Fire, Skunk and Moon Rocks.

What is it?
K2 or Spice is a mixture of herbs, spices or shredded plant material that is typically sprayed with a synthetic compound chemically similar to THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana.

What does it look like?
K2 is typically sold in small, silvery plastic bags of dried leaves and marketed as incense that can be smoked. It is said to resemble potpourri.

How is it used?
K2 products are usually smoked in joints or pipes, but some users make it into a tea.

What are it’s short term effects?
2C-T-7 causes intense hallucinations. The most commonly reported unpleasant effects are gastrointestinal: nausea and vomiting. Also, diarrhea, gas, delirium, muscle tension and spasms, headaches, increased heartbeat, raised blood pressure, confusion or disorientation and inability to concentrate. 2CB has been reported to cause confusion, cardiovascular disturbances, and dehydration.

What are it’s long term effects?
Short term effects include loss of control, lack of pain response, increased agitation, pale skin, seizures, vomiting, profuse sweating, uncontrolled / spastic body movements, elevated blood pressure, heart rate and palpitations. The onset of this drug is 3-5 minutes, and the duration of the high is 1-8 hours.
In addition to physical signs of use, users may experience: dysphoria, severe paranoia, delusions, hallucinations and increased agitation.

What is its federal classification?
On March 1, 2011, DEA published a final order in the Federal Register temporarily placing five synthetic cannabinoids into Schedule I of the CSA. As a result of this order, the full effect of the CSA and its implementing regulations including criminal, civil and administrative penalties, sanctions, and regulatory controls of Schedule I substances will be imposed on the manufacture, distribution, possession, importation and exportation of these synthetic cannabinoids.

Ketamine

What is it?
Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic developed in 1963 to replace PCP and currently used in human anesthesia and veterinary medicine. Much of the ketamine sold on the street has been diverted from veterinarians’ offices. Ketamine’s chemical structure and mechanism of action are similar to those of PCP.

What does it look like?
Although it is manufactured as an injectable liquid, in illicit use ketamine is generally evaporated to form a powder.

How is it used?
Snorted or swallowed.
Ketamine is odorless and tasteless, so it can be added to beverages without being detected, and it induces amnesia. Because of these properties, the drug is sometimes given to unsuspecting victims and used in the commission of sexual assaults referred to as “drug rape.

What are it’s short term effects?
Ketamine can cause dream-like states and hallucinations. Users report sensations ranging from a pleasant feeling of floating to being separated from their bodies. Some ketamine experiences involve a terrifying feeling of almost complete sensory detachment that is likened to a near-death experience. These experiences, similar to a “bad trip” on LSD, are called the “K-hole.” Low-dose intoxication from ketamine results in impaired attention, learning ability, and memory .In high doses, ketamine can cause delirium, amnesia, impaired motor function, high blood pressure, depression, and potentially fatal respiratory problems.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule III

Khat

What is it?
A stimulant. For centuries, khat, the fresh young leaves of the Catha edulis shrub, have been consumed where the plant is cultivated, primarily in East Africa and the Arabian peninsula. There, chewing khat predates the use of coffee and is used in a similar social context. Khat has been brought into the United States and other countries for use by emigrants from the source countries. It contains a number of chemicals among which are two controlled substances, cathinone and cathine. As the leaves mature or dry, cathinone is converted to cathine, which significantly reduces its stimulatory properties.
Methcathinone, commonly called cat, is occasionally confused with khat. Methcathinone is a synthetic Schedule I substance that has a similar chemical structure to the cathinone in the khat plant. Methcathinone is produced in clandestine laboratories and sold as a methamphetamine alternative. The addictive properties and side effects of this synthetic are more intense than either of the naturally occurring khat substances.

How is it used?
Khat is typically chewed like tobacco. The fresh leaves, twigs, and shoots of the khat shrub are chewed, and then retained in the cheek and chewed intermittently to release the active drug. Dried plant material can be made into tea or a chewable paste, but dried khat is not as potent as the fresh plant product.
Khat can also be smoked and even sprinkled on food.

What are it’s short term effects?
Compulsive use may result in manic behavior with grandiose delusions or in a paranoid type of illness, sometimes accompanied by hallucinations.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule IV

LSD
Acid, Doses, Hits, Microdot, Sugar cubes, Tabs, Trips

What is it?
LSD is the most common hallucinogen and is one of the most potent mood-changing chemicals. It is manufactured from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains.

What does it look like?
LSD is usually found on “blotter” paper (paper that is perforated into small squares). The squares or “tabs” may be colored or have images printed on them. Liquid LSD is a clear liquid, usually in a small container, tube or flask. LSD can also be found in thin squares of gelatin.

How is it used?
LSD is taken orally.  Gelatin and liquid can be put in the eyes.

What are it’s short term effects?
The effects of LSD are unpredictable. They depend on the amount taken, the user’s personality, mood, and expectations, and the surroundings in which the drug is used.  The physical effects include dilated pupils, higher body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, sweating, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, dry mouth, and tremors. Sensations and feelings change much more dramatically than the physical signs.  The user may feel several different emotions at once or swing rapidly from one emotion to another.  If taken in a large enough dose, the drug produces delusions and visual hallucinations.  The user’s sense of time and self changes.  Sensations may seem to “cross over,” giving the user the feeling of hearing colors and seeing sounds.  These changes can be frightening and can cause panic, but usually don’t.

What are it’s long term effects?
Some LSD users experience flashbacks, recurrence of certain aspects of a person’s experience even if the user doesn’t take the drug again.  A flashback occurs suddenly, often without warning, and may occur within a few days or more than a year after LSD use.  Most users of LSD voluntarily decrease or stop its use over time. LSD is not considered to be an addicting drug because it does not produce compulsive drug-seeking behavior like cocaine, amphetamines, heroin, alcohol, or nicotine.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule I

Methcathinone
Cat

What is it?
A stimulant that is a structural analogue of methamphetamine and cathinone. It is clandestinely manufactured from readily available chemicals.

What does it look like?
A white or off-white crystalline powder. Almost exclusively sold in the stable and highly water soluble hydrochloride salt form.

How is it used?
It is most commonly snorted, although it can be taken orally by mixing it with a beverage or diluted in water and it can be injected intravenously.

What are it’s short term effects?
Methcathinone produces amphetamine-like activity.

What are it’s long term effects?
Little scientific research is available on the long-term effects of methcathinone.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule I

Morphine
Duramorph, M, Miss Emma, Monkey, Roxanol, White Stuff

What is it?
Morphine is an opiate, derived from the poppy plant. It is classified as a narcotic and is commonly prescribed to manage pain.

What does it look like?
Morphine is commonly available in the form of a tablet, syrup, injection or as a suppository. Depending on its form, morphine may be injected, swallowed, or even smoked.

How is it used?
Morphine is often used before or after surgery to alleviate severe pain. Morphine and other opioids act by attaching to specific proteins called opioid receptors, which are found in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract. When these compounds attach to certain opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, they can effectively change the way a person experiences pain.

What are it’s short term effects?
Morphine affects regions of the brain that mediate what we perceive as pleasure, resulting in initial feelings of euphoria. Morphine can also produce drowsiness, cause constipation, and, depending upon the amount taken, depress breathing. Taking a large single dose could cause severe respiratory depression, coma or death.

What are it’s long term effects?
Long-term use of morphine also can lead to physical dependence. This can also include tolerance and addiction. Individuals taking prescribed opioid medications should be given these medications under appropriate medical supervision and should be supervised when discontinuing use to mitigate withdrawal symptoms.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule II

Mushrooms
Caps, Magic mushrooms, Mushrooms, Psilocybin & Psilocyn, Shrooms.

What is it?
Psilocybin and psilocyn are the hallucinogenic principles contained in certain mushrooms. These “magic” mushrooms are generally grown in Mexico and Central America and have been used in native rituals for thousands of years. Psilocybin is structurally similar to serotonin, and produces its effects by disrupting normal functioning of the serotonin system.

What does it look like?
Dried mushrooms.

How is it used?
Mushrooms can be eaten, brewed and consumed as tea.
What are their short-term effects?
Once ingested, mushrooms generally cause feelings of nausea before the desired mental effects appear. The high from using magic mushrooms is mild and may cause altered feelings and distorted perceptions of touch, sight, sound and taste. Other effects can include nervousness and paranoia. Effects can be different during each use due to varying potency, the amount ingested, and the user’s expectations, mood, surroundings, and frame of mind. On some trips, users experience sensations that are enjoyable. Others can include terrifying thoughts, and anxiety, fears of insanity, death, or losing control.

What are it’s short term effects?
Some magic mushroom users experience “flashbacks”, or hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD), which are reoccurrences of hallucinations long after ingesting the drug. The causes of these effects, which in some users occur after a single experience with the drug, are not known.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule I

Opium
Big O, Black stuff, Block.

What is it?
An opioid or narcotic, made from the white liquid in the poppy plant.

What does it look like?
A black or brown block of tar like substance.

How is it used?
Smoked.

What are it’s short term effects?
Opium can cause euphoria, followed by a sense of well-being and a calm drowsiness or sedation. Breathing slows, potentially to the point of unconsciousness and death with large doses. Other effects can include nausea, confusion and constipation. Use of opium with other substances that depress the central nervous system, such as alcohol, antihistamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, or general anesthetics, increases the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression.

What are it’s long term effects?
Long-term use can lead to drug tolerance, meaning the user needs more of the drug to get similar euphoric effects.  Opium use can also lead to physical dependence and addiction.  Withdrawal symptoms can occur if long term use is reduced or stopped.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule II

OxyContin

What is it?
OxyContin is the brand name for oxycodone hydrochloride, an opioid (narcotic) analgesic (pain reliever).OxyContin is a controlled-release oral formulation of oxycodone hydrochloride. It is available by prescription only and is used to treat moderate to severe pain when around-the-clock pain relief is needed for an extended period of time. It works by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain.

What does it look like?
OxyContin is available in tablet form in 8 doses: 10 mg 15 mg 20 mg 30 mg 40 mg 60 mg* 80 mg* 160 mg*.

How is it used?
As pain medication, OxyContin is taken every 12 hours because the tablets contain a controlled, time-release formulation of the medication. Most pain medications must be taken every three to six hours. OxyContin abusers remove the sustained-release coating to get a rapid release of the medication, causing a rush of euphoria similar to heroin.

What are it’s short term effects?
The most serious risk associated with opioids, including OxyContin, is respiratory depression — slowed breathing. Common opioid side effects are constipation, nausea, sedation, dizziness, vomiting, headache, dry mouth, sweating, mood changes, flushing, loss of appetite, and weakness. Taking a large single dose of an opioid could cause severe respiratory depression — slowed or difficulty breathing that can lead to death.

What are it’s long term effects?
Chronic use of opioids can result in tolerance for the drugs, which means that users must take higher doses to achieve the same initial effects. Long-term use also can lead to physical dependence and addiction — the body adapts to the presence of the drug, and withdrawal symptoms occur if use is reduced or stopped. Taken exactly as prescribed, opioids can be used to manage pain effectively.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule II

PCP
Angel Dust, Embalming Fluid, Killer Weed, Rocket Fuel, Supergrass, Wack, Ozone

What is it?
PCP, or phencyclidine, is a “dissociative” anesthetic that was developed in the 1950s as a surgical anesthetic. Its sedative and anesthetic effects are trance-like, and patients experience a feeling of being “out of body” and detached from their environment. Use of PCP in humans was discontinued in 1965, because it was found that patients often became agitated, delusional, and irrational while recovering from its anesthetic effects.

What does it look like?
PCP is a white crystalline powder that is readily soluble in water or alcohol. It has a distinctive bitter chemical taste.

How is it used?
PCP turns up on the illicit drug market in a variety of tablets, capsules, and colored powders. PCP can be snorted, smoked, injected, or swallowed and is most commonly sold as a powder or liquid and applied to a leafy material such as mint, parsley, oregano, tobacco, or marijuana.
Many people who use PCP may do it unknowingly because PCP is often used as an additive and can be found in marijuana, LSD, or methamphetamine.

What are it’s short term effects?
At low to moderate doses, PCP can cause distinct changes in body awareness, similar to those associated with alcohol intoxication. Other effects can include shallow breathing, flushing, profuse sweating, generalized numbness of the extremities and poor muscular coordination. Use of PCP among adolescents may interfere with hormones related to normal growth and development as well as with the learning process.

At high doses, PCP can cause hallucinations as well as seizures, coma, and death (though death more often results from accidental injury or suicide during PCP intoxication). Other effects that can occur at high doses are nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, flicking up and down of the eyes, drooling, loss of balance, and dizziness. High doses can also cause effects similar to symptoms of schizophrenia, such as delusions, paranoia, disordered thinking, a sensation of distance from one’s environment, and catatonia. Speech is often sparse and garbled.

PCP has sedative effects, and interactions with other central nervous system depressants, such as alcohol and benzodiazepines, can lead to coma or accidental overdose.

Many PCP users are brought to emergency rooms because of PCP’s unpleasant psychological effects or because of overdoses. In a hospital or detention setting, they often become violent or suicidal, and are very dangerous to themselves and to others. They should be kept in a calm setting and should not be left alone.

What are it’s long term effects?
PCP is addicting; that is, its repeated use often leads to psychological dependence, craving, and compulsive PCP-seeking behavior.

People who use PCP for long periods report memory loss, difficulties with speech and thinking, depression, and weight loss. These symptoms can persist up to a year after cessation of PCP use. Mood disorders also have been reported.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule II

Peyote
Buttons, Cactus, mesc

What is it?
Peyote is a small, spineless cactus, Lophophora williamsii, whose principal active ingredient is the hallucinogen mescaline. From earliest recorded time, peyote has been used by natives in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States as a part of traditional religious rites. Mescaline can be extracted from peyote or produced synthetically.

How is it used?
The top of the cactus above ground — also referred to as the crown — consists of disc-shaped buttons that are cut from the roots and dried. These buttons are generally chewed or soaked in water to produce an intoxicating liquid.

What are it’s short term effects?
Once ingested, peyote can cause feelings of nausea before the desired mental effects appear, which are altered states of perception and feeling. Other effects can include increased body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure; loss of appetite, sleeplessness, numbness, weakness, tremors. Effects can be different during each use due to varying potency, the amount ingested, and the user’s expectations, mood and surroundings. On some trips, users experience sensations that are enjoyable. Others can include terrifying thoughts and anxiety, fear of insanity, fear of death, or fear of losing control.

What are it’s long term effects?
Some users experience “flashbacks”, or hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD), which are reoccurrences of hallucinations long after ingesting the drug. The causes of these effects, which in some users occur after a single experience with the drug, are not known.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule I

PMA
Death, Mitsubishi Double Stack, often sold as Ecstasy

What is it?
A synthetic hallucinogen. Chemically it is paramethoxyamphetamine.

What does it look like?
Sold in tablet, capsule and (rarely) powder form. PMA looks similar to Ecstasy and costs about the same.

How is it used?
PMA is typically taken orally in pill or capsule form. PMA powder, although uncommon, may be inhaled or injected.

What are it’s short term effects?
Doses of less than 50 milligrams (usually one pill) causes symptoms like Ecstasy; increased breathing, body temperature, pulse rate and blood pressure, erratic eye movements, muscle spasms, nausea and heightened visual stimulation. Dosages over 60-80 mg (lower than those used regularly for Ecstasy) are considered potentially lethal. They can cause cardiac arrhythmia and arrest, breathing problems, pulmonary congestion, kidney failure, hypothermia, vomiting, convulsions, coma and death.

What are it’s long term effects?
Unknown

What is its federal classification?
Schedule I

Prescription Pain Relievers
Codeine, OxyContin, Percocet and Vicodin

What is it?
These are opioids, or narcotics.

What does it look like?
Tablets and capsules.

How is it used?
Medically, they are prescribed as analgesics, to treat pain. When abused, they are swallowed or injected.

What are it’s short term effects?
Relief from pain. In some people, prescription pain relievers also cause euphoria or feelings of well being by affecting the brain regions that mediate pleasure. This is why they are abused. Other effects include drowsiness, constipation and slowed breathing. Taking a large single dose of prescription pain relievers can cause severe respiratory depression that can lead to death. Use of prescription pain relievers with other substances that depress the central nervous system, such as alcohol, antihistamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, or general anesthetics, increases the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression.

What are it’s long term effects?
Taken exactly as prescribed, pain relievers can manage pain effectively. But chronic use or abuse of opioids can result in physical dependence and addiction. Dependence means that the body adapts to the presence of the drug, and withdrawal symptoms occur if use is reduced or stopped. Symptoms of withdrawal include: restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, and cold flashes with goose bumps (“cold turkey”). Tolerance to the drugs’ effects also occurs with long-term use, so users must take higher doses to achieve the same or similar effects as experienced initially. Addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use.

What is its federal classification?
Not Applicable

Prescription Sedatives/Tranquilizers
Mebaral, Quaaludes, Xanax and Valium (benzodiazepines), Nembutal

What is it?
Prescription medications that act as central nervous system depressants. Barbiturates are prescription sedatives or “sleeping pills” and benzodiazepines are prescription “tranquilizers.

What does it look like?
Multi-colored tablets and capsules; some can be in liquid form.

How is it used?
Medically, barbiturates are prescribed for acute anxiety, tension and sleep disorders. Benzodiazepines are prescribed for anxiety, acute stress reactions, and panic attacks. When abused, they are swallowed or injected.

What are it’s short term effects?
Prescription sedatives and tranquilizers can cause euphoria. They also slow normal brain function, which may result in slurred speech, shallow breathing, sluggishness, fatigue, disorientation and lack of coordination or dilated pupils. During the first few days of taking a prescribed sedative or tranquilizer, a person usually feels sleepy and uncoordinated, but as the body becomes accustomed to the effects of the drug, these feelings begin to disappear. Higher doses cause impairment of memory, judgment and coordination, irritability, paranoid and suicidal ideation. Some people experience a paradoxical reaction to these drugs and can become agitated or aggressive. Using Prescription sedatives and tranquilizers with other substances — particularly alcohol — can slow breathing, or slow both the heart and respiration, and possibly lead to death.

What are it’s long term effects?
Continued use can lead to physical dependence and — when use is reduced or stopped abruptly — withdrawal symptoms may occur. Because all Prescription sedatives and tranquilizers work by slowing the brain’s activity, when an individual stops taking them, there can be a rebound effect, possibly leading to seizures and other harmful consequences. Tolerance to the drug’s effects can also occur, meaning that larger doses are needed to achieve similar effects as those experienced initially. This may lead users to take higher doses and risk the occurrence of an overdose. Addiction can also occur, meaning that users continue to take these drugs despite their harmful consequences.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule IV

Prescription Stimulants
Adderall, Dexedrine, Ritalin

What is it?
A class of drugs that enhance brain activity. Prescription stimulants were used historically to treat asthma, obesity, neurological disorders, and a variety of other ailments, before their potential for abuse and addiction became apparent.

What does it look like?
Tablets and capsules.

How is it used?
Medically, they are now prescribed for only a few health conditions, including narcolepsy, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and short-term treatment of obesity. They are swallowed and may be injected when abused.

What are it’s short term effects?
Stimulants increase the amount of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain, which increases blood pressure and heart rate, constricts blood vessels, increases blood glucose, and increases breathing. Effects can feel like an increase alertness, attention, and energy along with a sense of euphoria. There is also the potential for cardiovascular failure (heart attack) or lethal seizures.

What are it’s long term effects?
Stimulants can be addictive in that individuals begin to use them compulsively. Taking high doses of some stimulants repeatedly over a short time can lead to feelings of hostility or paranoia. Additionally, taking high doses of a stimulant may result in dangerously high body temperatures and an irregular heartbeat. There is also the potential for cardiovascular failure (heart attack) or lethal seizures.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule II

Propofol or Diprivan

What is it?
Diprivan is a powerful sedative given intravenously to induce and maintain anesthesia or sedation during surgery and certain medical tests and procedures. Medical supervision is required to administer and monitoring is required when administering Diprivan. A special procedure is required to administer Diprivan to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination. Contamination causes individuals to experience fever, chills, and body aches.

What does it look like?
Propofol comes in vials and looks like milk.

How is it used?
Propofol is administered intravenously.

What are it’s short term effects?
Possible short term effects include hypotension (low-blood pressure), Dystonia (sustained muscle contractions causing repetitive movements), bradycardia (slow heart rate), inflammation of veins, and blood clots. In epileptic patients there is a risk of seizure during the recovery phase.

What are it’s long term effects?
Unknown

What is its federal classification?
Not Applicable

Pseudoephedrine

What is it?
Pseudoephedrine is a decongestant.

What does it look like?
Found in over the counter tablets and capsules.

How is it used?
Medically, it is used to treat congestion associated with allergies, hay fever, sinus irritation, and the common cold. Pseudoephedrine is used as a key ingredient needed for the production of the illicit drug methamphetamine.

What are it’s short term effects?
2C-T-7 causes intense hallucinations. The most commonly reported unpleasant effects are gastrointestinal: nausea and vomiting. Also, diarrhea, gas, delirium, muscle tension and spasms, headaches, increased heartbeat, raised blood pressure, confusion or disorientation and inability to concentrate. 2CB has been reported to cause confusion, cardiovascular disturbances, and dehydration.

What is its federal classification?
Not Applicable

Ritalin
Kibbles and bits, Pineapple

What is it?
Ritalin, the trade name for methylphenidate, is a medication prescribed for children with an abnormally high level of activity or with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is also occasionally prescribed for treating narcolepsy. It stimulates the central nervous system, with effects similar to but less potent than amphetamines and more potent than caffeine. Ritalin has a notably calming effect on hyperactive children and a “focusing” effect on those with ADHD. When taken as prescribed, Ritalin is a valuable medicine. Further, research funded by the National Institute of Mental Health has shown that people with ADHD do not get addicted to their stimulant medications at treatment dosages. Because of its stimulant properties, however, in recent years there have been reports of its abuse by people for whom it is not a medication. These prescription tablets can create powerful stimulant effects and serious health risks when crushed and then snorted like cocaine, or injected like heroin.

What does it look like?
Ritalin is in pill or tablet form.

How is it used?
Taken orally, snorted, or injected.

What are it’s short term effects?
Ritalin (methylphenidate) is a central nervous system stimulant, similar to amphetamines in the nature and duration of its effects. It is believed that it works by activating the brain stem arousal system and cortex. Pharmacologically, it works on the neurotransmitter dopamine, and in that respect resembles the stimulant characteristics of cocaine. Short-term effects can include nervousness and insomnia, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, palpitations, headaches, changes in heart rate and blood pressure (usually elevation of both, but occasionally depression), skin rashes and itching, abdominal pain, weight loss, and digestive problems, toxic psychosis, psychotic episodes, drug dependence syndrome, and severe depression upon withdrawal.

What are it’s long term effects?
High doses of stimulants produce a predictable set of symptoms that include loss of appetite (may cause serious malnutrition), tremors and muscle twitching, fevers, convulsions, and headaches (may be severe), irregular heartbeat and respirations (may be profound and life threatening), anxiety, restlessness, paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions, excessive repetition of movements and meaningless tasks, and formicaton (sensation of bugs or worms crawling under the skin).

What is its federal classification?
Schedule II

Rohypnol
Date rape drug, La roche, R2, Rib, Roach, Roofenol, Roofies, Rope, Rophies, Ruffies, The forget pill

What is it?
Rohypnol is the brand name for a drug called Flunitrazepam, which is a powerful sedative that depresses the central nervous system. Rohypnol is not legally available for prescription in the United States, but is legal in 60 countries worldwide for treatment of insomnia.

What does it look like?
A small white tablet with no taste or odor when dissolved in a drink.

How is it used?
Rohypnol is swallowed as a pill, dissolved in a drink, or snorted.  Roofies are frequently used in combination with alcohol and other drugs. They are sometimes taken to enhance a heroin high, or to mellow or ease the experience of coming down from a cocaine or crack high. Used with alcohol, roofies produce disinhibition and amnesia.

What are it’s short term effects?
The drug creates a sleepy, relaxed, and drunk feeling that lasts 2 to 8 hours. Other effects may include blackouts, with a compete loss of memory, dizziness and disorientation, nausea, difficulty with motor movements and speaking.

What are it’s long term effects?
Rohypnol can produce physical and psychological dependence.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule IV

Salvia Divinorum
Shepherdess’s Herb, Ska Pastora

What is it?
Salvia divinorum is a psychoactive mint, used in traditional spiritual practices by the Mazatec people of Mexico and is legal in both Mexico and the United States. However, three states have banned the leafy green, making its possession — like that of heroin or cocaine — a felony. Salvinorin-A, the active property of salvia divinorum, is considered to be the most potent, selective and naturally occurring hallucinogen when smoked —  rivaling the potency of the synthetic hallucinogens like LSD.

What does it look like?
It looks like green plant leaves or a liquid extract.

How is it used?
It can be ingested (liquid form) or smoked (powder form).

What are it’s short term effects?
This drug is a psychoactive hallucinogen that can cause dramatic and sometimes frightening mind-states. Depending on dosage, a user’s reaction can vary from a subtle, just-off-baseline state to a full-blown psychedelic experience. It has been reported to induce an intense hallucinatory experience in humans (particularly when smoked) which typically persists from several minutes to an hour. It has been described as a “20-minute acid trip.

What are it’s long term effects?
Since not much is known, it can only be said that harm from Salvia divinorum most likely occurs from inadequate preparation or from using the drug in a setting in which it is dangerous to be intoxicated from any drug at all (i.e. driving).

What is its federal classification?
Not Applicable

Steroids

What does it look like?
Steroids come in tablets or liquid form.

How is it used?
Anabolic steroids are taken orally or injected, and athletes and other abusers take them typically in cycles of weeks or months, rather than continuously, in patterns called cycling. Cycling involves taking multiple doses of steroids over a specific period of time, stopping for a period, and starting again. In addition, users frequently combine several different types of steroids to maximize their effectiveness while minimizing negative effects, a process known as stacking.

What are it’s short term effects?
Although anabolic androgenic steroids may increase lean muscle mass, strength, and the ability to train longer and harder, the serious side effects of steroids are many and may not be reversible. The minor side effects of steroid use include acne, oily skin, excess hair growth, and deepening of the voice. The major side effects of steroid use include an increased risk of cancer, increased risk of heart and liver disease, jaundice, fluid retention, reduction in HDL-C (“good cholesterol”), high blood pressure, changes in blood coagulation, increased risk of atherosclerosis, swelling of the soft tissues of the extremities (edema), and obstructive sleep apnea.
Side effects specific to men can include testicular atrophy or the shrinking of the testicles, reduced sperm count, infertility, baldness, and the development of breasts. For women, side effects can include enlargement of the clitoris, changes in the body contour growth of facial hair, disruption of the menstrual cycle, deepened voice and infertility.
An increase in androgenic (male) hormones may also lead to aggressive behavior. Research also indicates that steroid users often suffer from paranoid jealousy, extreme irritability, delusions, and impaired judgment stemming from feelings of invincibility..

What are it’s long term effects?
Adolescents who abuse steroids are at a significant risk of suffering irreversible side effects, including stunted growth, accelerated puberty changes and abnormal sexual development.
Adolescent girls in particular may suffer from severe acne, excessive body and facial hair, deepened voice, permanent enlargement of the clitoris, disruption of the menstrual cycle, and permanent infertility.

What is its federal classification?
Schedule III

Tobacco
Chew, Dip, Fags, Smoke

What is it?
Tobacco is an agricultural crop.

What does it look like?
Brown cut up leaves.

How is it used?
Tobacco is usually smoked. Sometimes tobacco leaves are “dipped” or “chewed” so the nicotine is absorbed via the gums.

What are it’s short term effects?
When a person smokes a cigarette, the body responds immediately to the chemical nicotine in the smoke. Nicotine causes a short-term increase in blood pressure, heart rate, and the flow of blood from the heart. It also causes the arteries to narrow. Carbon monoxide reduces the amount of oxygen the blood can carry. This, combined with the effects produced by nicotine, creates an imbalance in the demand for oxygen by the cells and the amount of oxygen the blood is able to supply.

What are it’s long term effects?
It is now well documented that smoking can cause chronic lung disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke, as well as cancer of the lungs, larynx, esophagus, mouth, and bladder. In addition, smoking is known to contribute to cancer of the cervix, pancreas, and kidneys. Researchers have identified more than 40 chemicals in tobacco smoke that cause cancer in humans and animals. Smokeless tobacco and cigars also have deadly consequences, including lung, larynx, esophageal, and oral cancer. The harmful effects of smoking do not end with the smoker. Women who use tobacco during pregnancy are more likely to have adverse birth outcomes, including babies with low birth weight, which is linked with an increased risk of infant death and with a variety of infant health disorders. The health of nonsmokers is adversely affected by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Each year, exposure to ETS causes an estimated 3,000 non-smoking Americans to die of lung cancer and causes up to 300,000 children to suffer from lower respiratory-tract infections. Evidence also indicates that exposure to ETS increases the risk of coronary heart disease.

What is its federal classification?
Not Applicable